Flowers and Hips
There are more than 400 individual components (constituents) in rose essential oil.Rosehips: essential fatty acids (EFA's) - predominantly linoleic (40-46%) and linolenic (33-40%), but also oleic (15-17%) and palmitic (3-4%) fatty acids.
A rose is a woody perennial of the genus Rosa, within the family Rosaceae. There are over 100 species and thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwest Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses.
The name rose comes from French, itself from Latin rosa, which was
perhaps borrowed from Oscan, from Greek ρόδον rhódon , itself borrowed from
Old Persian wrd- (wurdi), related to Avestan varəδa, Sogdian ward, Parthian
Besides the enormous ornamental industry, roses have been used for centuries
in other ways.
Rose perfumes are made from attar of roses or rose oil, which is a mixture of
volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses.
An associated product is rose water which is used for cooking, cosmetics, medicine and in religious practices. The production technique originated in Persia then spread through Arabia and India, and more recently into eastern Europe. In Bulgaria, Iran and Germany, damask roses (Rosa × damascena 'Trigintipetala') are used. In other parts of the world Rosa × centifolia is commonly used. The oil is transparent pale yellow or yellow-grey in color. 'Rose Absolute' is solvent-extracted with hexane and produces a darker oil, dark yellow to orange in color. The weight of oil extracted is about one three-thousandth to one six-thousandth of the weight of the flowers; for example, about two thousand flowers are required to produce one gram of oil, making it one of the highest priced essential oils.
Geraniol (C10H18O)The main constituents of attar of roses are the fragrant alcohols geraniol and l-citronellol and rose camphor, an odorless solid composed of alkanes, which separates from rose oil. β-Damascenone is also a significant contributor to the scent.
Food and drink
Rose hips are occasionally made into jam, jelly, marmalade, and soup or are brewed for tea, primarily for their high vitamin C content. They are also pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup. Rose hips are also used to produce Rose hip seed oil, which is used in skin products and some makeup products. Rosehip oil has SPF qualities and is also used in natural sun screens.
Rose petals or flower buds are sometimes used to flavor ordinary tea, or combined with other herbs to make herbal teas.
In France there is much use of rose syrup, most commonly made from an extract of rose petals. In the United States, this French rose syrup is used to make rose scones and marshmallows. In the Indian subcontinent Rooh Afza, a concentrated squash made with roses, is popular, as well as rose-flavored ice cream and kulfi.
Rose flowers are used as food, also usually as flavoring or to add their scent to food. Other minor uses include candied rose petals.
Rose creams (rose flavored fondant covered in chocolate, often topped with a crystallized rose petal) are a traditional English confectionery widely available from numerous producers in the UK.
The rose hip, usually from R. canina is used as a minor source of Vitamin C. The fruits of many species have significant levels of vitamins and have been used as a food supplement. Many roses have been used in herbal and folk medicines. Rosa chinensis has long been used in Chinese traditional medicine. This and other species have been used for stomach problems, and are being investigated for controlling cancer growth. Rose HipsRose hip seed oil is a pressed seed oil, extracted from the seeds of a wild rose bush (Rosa moschata or Rosa rubiginosa) in the southern Andes. Rosehip seed oil can also be extracted from Rosa canina, which grows in many regions of the world including South Africa and Europe.
It is commonly used in skin care products. It is commonly used for a variety of skin conditions, including dermatitis, acne and eczema, for mature and sun burnt skin as well as brittle nails and wrinkles. Rose hip oil is also frequently used to heal scarring and diminish photo-aging.
Ornamentals, Dried, Essential Oil, Oil and powder from hips
Pakistan and Chile